alicia keys who is she dating - Validating holistic scoring for writing assessment

As a result, teachers increasingly encounter L1 and L2 students in their classes, read their essays side-by-side, and ultimately assign grades based partially on that writing.National Council of Teachers of English’s (NCTE) Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing explains that language assessments must be sensitive to “the length of time students need to become skilled at [basic and academic language]” (2009, para. When L1 and L2 writers take the same writing assessments, there can be large disparities in the linguistic backgrounds of these students making it difficult to rate their writing in identical ways.

Edgington (2005) found that teachers utilize numerous strategies, including “evaluating, clarifying, questioning, and inferring” (p. However, there remain questions of whether raters adopt the same reading behaviors in similar proportions to texts written by native English (L1) and non-native English (L2) writers.

The issue of reading for evaluation has gained relevance recently given that there are now more international students studying in U. higher education than ever before (Institute of International Education, 2016).

Moreover, the study demonstrates the potential for using eye-tracking research to unobtrusively investigate the reading behaviors involved in assessing L1 and L2 writing.

Essay writing serves as a critical gatekeeping mechanism and subsequent measurement tool of student learning in most colleges.

With the development of eye-tracking technology, however, it is now possible to add direct reading behavior measurements to the discussion of differential L1/L2 essay rating processes.

The present study provides this additional insight by investigating the reading behavior of several ESL writing teachers as they read and rated L1 and L2 writing.

For instance, students are granted or denied acceptance to the university partially on their essay writing abilities.

And once enrolled, students regularly perform on essay assessments in required courses.

Moreover, when reading L1 and L2 texts, Hall (2014) calls for an awareness he terms multilingual equity which encourages raters to be aware of and sensitive to students’ language backgrounds and needs, echoing Raimes’ (1985) argument that L2 writers need more time to pre-write, draft, revise, and edit their writing.

Raters who are sympathetic to language learners, for instance, may change their reading and rating behaviors to accommodate for differences in students’ backgrounds, such as showing some leniency for language errors or acknowledging differing rhetorical styles among L2 writers.

Raters with ESL training were chosen for this study because of their professional familiarity with features of L2 writing (Eckstein, Casper, Chan, & Blackwell, 2018) and a sensitivity to L2 writers’ needs.

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